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  5. Criminal/Terrorist Use of Chemical/Biological/Radiological Agents

Criminal/Terrorist Use of Chemical/Biological/Radiological Agents

The following is intended to supply information to first responders for use in making a preliminary assessment of a situation that they suspect involves criminal/terrorist use of chemical, biological agents and/or radioactive materials (CBRN). To aid in the assessment, a list of observable indicators of the use and/or presence of a CB agent or radioactive material is provided in the following paragraphs. This section ends with a Safe Standoff Distance Chart for various threats when Improvised Explosive Devices are involved.

Differences between a Chemical, Biological and Radiological agent

Chemical and biological agents as well as radioactive materials can be dispersed in the air we breathe, the water we drink, or on surfaces we physically contact. Dispersion methods may be as simple as opening a container, using conventional (garden) spray devices, or as elaborate as detonating an improvised explosive device.

Chemical Incidents are characterized by the rapid onset of medical symptoms (minutes to hours) and easily observed signatures (colored residue, dead foliage, pungent odor, dead insects and animals).

Biological Incidents are characterized by the onset of symptoms in hours to days. Typically, there will be no characteristic signatures because biological agents are usually odorless and colorless. Because of the delayed onset of symptoms in a biological incident, the area affected may be greater due to the movement of infected individuals.

Radiological Incidents are characterized by the onset of symptoms, if any, in days to weeks or longer. Typically, there will be no characteristic signatures because radioactive materials are usually odorless and colorless. Specialized equipment is required to determine the size of the affected area, and whether the level of radioactivity presents an immediate or long-term health hazard. Because radioactivity is not detectable without special equipment, the affected area may be greater due to the migration of contaminated individuals.

At the levels created by most probable sources, not enough radiation would be generated to kill people or cause severe illness. In a radiological incident generated by a "dirty bomb", or Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), in which a conventional explosive is detonated to spread radioactive contamination, the primary hazard is from the explosion. However, certain radioactive materials dispersed in the air could contaminate up to several city blocks, creating fear and possibly panic, and requiring potentially costly cleanup.

Indicators of a Possible Chemical Incident

Dead animals/birds/fish
Not just an occasional road kill, but numerous animals (wild and domestic, small and large), birds, and fish in the same area.
Lack of insect life
If normal insect activity (ground, air, and/or water) is missing, check the ground/water surface/shore line for dead insects. If near water, check for dead fish/aquatic birds.
Unexplained odors
Smells may range from fruity to flowery to sharp/pungent to garlic/ horseradish-like to bitter almonds/peach kernels to newly mown hay. It is important to note that the particular odor is completely out of character with its surroundings.
Unusual numbers of dying or sick people (mass casualties)
Health problems including nausea, disorientation, difficulty in breathing, convulsions, localized sweating, conjunctivitis (reddening of eyes/nerve agent symptoms), erythema (reddening of skin/vesicant symptoms) and death.
Pattern of casualties
Casualties will likely be distributed downwind, or if indoors, by the air ventilation system.
Numerous individuals experiencing unexplained water-like blisters, weals (like bee stings), and/or rashes.
Illness in confined area
Different casualty rates for people working indoors versus outdoors dependent on where the agent was released.
Unusual liquid droplets
Numerous surfaces exhibit oily droplets/film; numerous water surfaces have an oily film. (No recent rain.)
Different-looking areas
Not just a patch of dead weeds, but trees, shrubs, bushes, food crops, and/or lawns that are dead, discolored, or withered. (No current drought.)
Low-lying clouds
Low-lying cloud/fog-like condition that is not consistent with its surroundings.
Unusual metal debris
Unexplained bomb/munitions-like material, especially if it contains a liquid.

Indicators of a possible Biological Incident

Unusual numbers of sick or dying people or animals
Any number of symptoms may occur. Casualties may occur hours to days after an incident has occurred. The time required before symptoms are observed is dependent on the agent used.
Unscheduled and unusual spray being disseminated
Especially if outdoors during periods of darkness.
Abandoned spray devices
Devices may not have distinct odors.

Indicators of a Possible Radiological Incident

Radiation Symbols
Containers may display a "propeller" radiation symbol.
Unusual metal debris
Unexplained bomb/munitions-like material.
Heat-emitting material
Material that is hot or seems to emit heat without any sign of an external heat source.
Glowing material
Strongly radioactive material may emit or cause radioluminescence.
Sick people/animals
In very improbable scenarios there may be unusual numbers of sick or dying people or animals. Casualties may occur hours to days or weeks after an incident has occurred. The time required before symptoms are observed is dependent on the radioactive material used, and the dose received. Possible symptoms include skin reddening or vomiting.

Personal Safety Considerations

When approaching a scene that may involve CB agents or radioactive materials, the most critical consideration is the safety of oneself and other responders. Protective clothing and respiratory protection of appropriate level of safety must be used. In incidents where it is suspected that CBRN materials have been used as weapons, NIOSH-certified respirators with CBRN protection are highly recommended. Be aware that the presence and identification of CB agents or radioactive materials may not be verifiable, especially in the case of biological or radiological agents. The following actions/measures to be considered are applicable to either a chemical, biological or radiological incident. The guidance is general in nature, not all encompassing, and its applicability should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

Approach and response strategies. Protect yourself and use a safe approach (minimize any exposure time, maximize the distance between you and the item that is likely to harm you, use cover as protection and wear appropriate personal protective equipment and respiratory protection). Identify and estimate the hazard by using indicators as provided above. Isolate the area and secure the scene; potentially contaminated people should be isolated and decontaminated as soon as possible. To the extent possible, take measures to limit the spread of contamination. In the event of a chemical incident, the fading of chemical odors is not necessarily an indication of reduced vapor concentrations. Some chemicals deaden the senses giving the false perception that the chemical is no longer present.

If there is any indication that an area may be contaminated with radioactive materials, including the site of any non-accidental explosion, responder personnel should be equipped with radiation detection equipment that would alert them if they are entering a radiologically compromised environment, and should have received adequate training in its use. This equipment should be designed in such a way that it can also alert the responders when an unacceptable ambient dose rate or ambient dose has been reached.

Initial actions to consider in a potential CBRN/Hazmat Terrorism Event:

  • Avoid using cell phones, radios, etc. within 100 meters (300 feet) of a suspect device.
  • Notify your local police by calling 911.
  • Set up Incident command upwind and uphill of the area.
  • Do Not touch or move suspicious packages/containers.
  • Be cautious regarding potential presence of secondary devices (e.g. Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)).
  • Avoid contamination.
  • Limit access to only those responsible for rescue of victims or assessment of unknown materials or devices.
  • Evacuate and isolate individuals potentially exposed to dangerous goods/hazardous materials.
  • Isolate contaminated areas and secure the scene for analysis of material.

Decontamination measures. Emergency responders should follow standard decontamination procedures (flush-strip-flush). Mass casualty decontamination should begin as soon as possible by stripping (all clothing) and flushing (soap and water). If biological agents are involved or suspected, careful washing and use of a brush are more effective. If chemical agents are suspected, the most important and effective decontamination will be the one done within the first one or two minutes. If possible, further decontamination should be performed using a 0.5% hypochlorite solution (1 part household bleach mixed with 9 parts water). If biological agents are suspected, a contact time of 10 to 15 minutes should be allowed before rinsing. The solution can be used on soft tissue wounds, but must not be used in eyes or open wounds of the abdomen, chest, head, or spine. For further information contact the agencies listed in this guidebook.

For persons contaminated with radioactive material, remove them to a low radiation area if necessary. Remove their clothing and place it in a clearly marked and sealed receptacle, such as a plastic bag, for later testing. Use decontamination methods described above, but avoid breaking the skin, e.g., from shaving, or overly vigorous brushing. External radiological contamination on intact skin surface rarely causes a high enough dose to be a hazard to either the contaminated person or the first responders. For this reason, except in very unusual circumstances, an injured person who is also radiologically contaminated should be medically stabilized, taking care to minimize the spread of the contamination to the extent possible, before decontamination measures are initiated.

Note: The above information was developed in part by the Department of National Defence (Canada), the U.S. Department of the Army, Aberdeen Proving Ground and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

Improvised Explosive Device (IED)
Safe Stand-Off Distance

1Based on the maximum amount of material that could reasonably fit into a container or vehicle. Variations possible.

2Governed by the ability of an unreinforced building to withstand severe damage or collapse.

3Governed by the greater of fragment throw distance or glass breakage/falling glass hazard distance. These distances can be reduced for personnel wearing ballistic protection. Note that the pipe bomb, suicide bomb, and briefcase/suitcase bomb are assumed to have a fragmentation characteristic that requires greater stand-off distances than an equal amount of explosives in a vehicle.

Improvised Explosive Device (IED)
Safe Stand-Off Distance

1Based on the maximum amount of material that could reasonably fit into a container or vehicle. Variations possible.

2Assuming efficient mixing of the flammable gas with ambient air.

3Determined by U.S. firefighting practifces wherein safe distances are approximately 4 times the flame height. Note that an LPG tank filled with high explosive would require a significantly greater stand-off distance than if it were filled with LPG.

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